An 8-year-old girl showed signs of constant thirst, increased urination, weight loss, fatigue, and blurred vision, so her family took her to the hospital. The doctor found that the child had an abnormally high blood sugar.
The Department of Endocrinology, National Hospital of Endocrinology is treating an 8-year-old child with type 1 diabetes, first diagnosed. According to the family, recently the baby has symptoms such as fatigue, thirst, drinking a lot, urinating a lot, and losing weight.
When going to the hospital for examination, the child’s blood sugar was 26.1mmol/l, many times higher than normal people with signs of dehydration. The baby was quickly admitted to the hospital and did the necessary tests and received active treatment, resuscitated fluids, controlled blood sugar with insulin, and advised on nutritional adjustment. After nearly a week, the baby’s condition has improved very well, blood sugar is more stable.
Doctor Nguyen Manh Tuan, Department of Endocrinology, said, type 1 diabetes is a medical condition that occurs when the pancreas does not produce or produces very little insulin, leading to severe endogenous insulin deficiency. Without insulin, blood glucose cannot enter cells and gradually accumulate in the blood leading to hyperglycemia, while cells are “starved for energy” because they cannot receive glucose. When blood sugar is high for a long time, it will harm the body and lead to many dangerous symptoms and complications of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed in children and young adults. The disease can start from a few months old, the most common group is 10-14 years old. The male-female ratio is about the same. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5-10% of people with diabetes.
Regarding the cause of type 1 diabetes, Dr. Tuan said, 95% of cases are due to autoimmune mechanisms and 5% of unknown causes. The immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the cells responsible for insulin production in the pancreas. Some risk factors such as infection with coxsackie virus, rubella, cytomegalo… or early exposure to cow’s milk diet are also related to disease onset. Certain antibodies against pancreatic beta cells can also be found in the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes.
According to Dr. Tuan, in the past, many people mistook type 1 diabetes as a genetic disease, which is not true. Type 1 diabetes is not classified as a genetic disorder. However, a person is more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if there is an immediate family member such as a parent or sibling with the condition.
Doctor Tuan recommends that parents should pay attention to children with symptoms such as thirst, drinking a lot, urinating a lot, being thin and losing weight, fatigue, blurred vision, bed-wetting. Especially when there are some dangerous warning symptoms of type 1 diabetes such as abdominal pain, vomiting, confusion, rapid deep breathing, breath that smells like ripe fruit, the patient must be taken to the hospital immediately. medical facility for examination, definitive diagnosis and timely treatment.
According to Dr. Tuan, people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin treatment and change their daily diet. People with moderate physical activity should maintain about 30-35 calories/kg/day. The balance between the proportions of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids helps control blood sugar but also ensures the patient’s life and work. In children, in addition to blood sugar control, it is also necessary to ensure the goals of normal growth and development of the child.
People with type 1 diabetes should monitor their blood sugar at least 4 times a day so that insulin dosage can be adjusted. In addition, people with type 1 diabetes should alternate the injection site as well as the blood glucose test site for the best results.